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The altitude ranged from 287 to 867 masl. assessment of nutrient needs of teak along the rotation. She travels widely and has spent over six years living abroad. The method depends on the scale of the pro-, regulate tree competition, and ensure that the best trees, (in terms of desired products) reach the ﬁnal harvest. Besides, several reports and proceedings of meetings on the subject have been published by IUFRO, FAO, and ITTO (e.g., Kollert & Cherubini, 2012; Bhat et al., 2005). Agroforestry is a type of agriculture that incorporates the planting, cultivation, and conservation of trees alongside crops or livestock farming. trees, and only 30 percent in 8-yr old trees (Figure 11). The defoliator, ous pest being present across the tropical regions. Understanding this complexity, The strengths and limitations of radiocarbon dating as applied to samples taken in and around the walled city center of Pagan, in Burma, are addressed. Spacing of 2 x 2 m or 2 x 3 m or up to 1,600 trees per … … The use of the best silvicultural prac, tices in every stage to reach sustainability goals can help, adoption of modern concepts and techniques of inten, sive and sustainable forest management (e.g., precision, forestry, nutrient dynamics, and informatics including, advanced remote sensing techniques, optimization, and, Develop mechanisms to make planting teak an activity, promote the exchange of information on the establish, ment and management of teak plantations around the, develop globally uniform grading teak rules for timber, from plantations. The results of Spearman’s partial rank correlation analysis among the parameters revealed the present condition of the teak plantation forest in the region. Its advantage is that. In advanced countries (Europe and America), draft animals have been. The teak tree is a tropical hardwood tree that can be found in various locations. mixtures of teak with a variety of fast-growing multipurpose tree species and fruit-trees; farm boundary row markers; scattered trees in groups of five to 20 in upland fields and home gardens. Substantial progress has been accomplished. A rhetorical question? Tectona grandis has small, fragrant white flowers arranged in dense clusters at the end of the branches.These flowers contain both types of reproductive organs (perfect flowers).The large, papery leaves of teak trees … There will now be an 8 metre gap between rows that has dappled shade from the teak. The initial stand density should be planned to produce. The last thousand years in mainland Southeast Asia remains a difficult period to date absolutely because of two critical issues. Optimum stocking, diameter growth and c) volume per tree of clonal vs. seed planta-, from a managed clonal plantation of 17-yr-old in T, gará da Serra-Mato Grosso, Brazil (see Figure 6a). In teak, the ﬁrst pruning is done at an early age, and up to 3-4 m height; then a second pruning is done up, to 6 m after the ﬁrst thinning. Choose an area with full sunlight and rich, well-drained soil. Complications arise due to the introduc-, tion of teak on new sites around the world, and improvements in planting techniques, concerns with, reduced productivity by soil degradation, and potential, among foresters. In the past much teak was planted with relatively wide spacing of 3 x 4 m (830 plants), 3.5 x 3.5 m or 3 x 3.5 m to test the different sites. The latter is used to, of clayed soils. will decrease if the spacing is increased to 3m x 3m or 4m x 4m. not only by insufﬁciency of a single important resource; but also by simultaneous not linear interaction of low (or, large) supplies of multiple resources (Binkley & Fisher, can reach large dimensions; although trees of more than, 2 m in diameter and a height of 60 m have been reported. Natural hazards are, summarized, including ﬁre risks, pest outbreaks, as w, as climate change-related events such as strong winds and, chronic or extreme drought-entailing signiﬁcant risks for, set of learned lessons and suggested policies aimed to im-, 5.1.2 Silviculture for the Establishment and, The establishment and management (E&M) of teak plan-, tations is not an isolated task; many other activities must, be carefully planned and executed before the estab. In this Chapter, our focus is chiefly on the establishment and management of even-aged commercial teak If you are looking for a tree for shade, privacy or aesthetic appeal, the hybrid poplar is hard to beat. last ﬁve years a considerable number of papers, reports, In this Chapter, our focus is chieﬂy on the establish-, ment and management of even-aged commercial teak, plantations, across Asia/Oceania, Africa, and Latin Amer-, ica, aimed at producing solid wood products in the context, of Sustainable Forest Management and Intensi. Incidence ranged from 5-10% of, trees across all inspected commercial ﬁelds. , 2014). has been adopted. are small containers made from peat moss that have been, container made of biodegradable paper produced in cus-, tomized sizes with a special machine. For a privacy fence, measure out your planting sites at a distance of 20 to 25 feet apart. Soil preparation goes from minimum, tillage systems to methods that imply the modiﬁcation of, some soil properties through mechanical, chemical, and, biological procedures (see Figure 3). Land cleaning depends on the type of previously existing, vegetation. Later in the 1960s and 1970s, tropical pines, especially Pinus caribaea var. In this stage trees are responsive, because teak is very sensitive to weed competition; and b). Likewise, the opportune execu-, tion of weeding and pruning is very important including, also the ﬁrst thinning which should be made shortly after, cal aspects of successful establishment and management, 126.96.36.199 Improved Plant Material for Establishing, vegetative propagation (clones). At project le, tation of particular stands can be shorter or larger than the. 12-yr-old commercial plantations in Brazil (Floresteca, 2016) clones showed superior diameter gro, and volume per tree (40%) than seed plantations on, similar site conditions (Figure 6b, c). Plant hybrid poplars at least 20 to 30 feet from sidewalks, patios and house foundations. into account bark/sapwood/heartwood proportions. See Table 1 for correct spacing to get a desired number of trees per acre. Hybrid poplars grow fast and mature quickly, but their life span is short compared to other trees. Using improved germplasm produces trees that grow quickly with ... -- Preparing land for planting in ways that promote tree survival and growth. not intense or repeated frequently on the same stand. Planting outside the, appropriate season due to budgetary limitations and lack, of planning are a common source of failure, mainly in, State managed projects. Consider using 60 gram of urea and 30 gram of super-phosphate after 6 months and then 80 gram of urea and 65 gram of super phosphate after 2 years of … In this phase thinning prescription (none to several thin-, ning operations) are carried out to reduce inter-tree com-. Thinning (removing alternate rows) is done 5 years and 10 years after planting in plantation raised with closer spacing (2 x 2m). Also, at the, outer part of the stem there is a smaller variation in wood, reach up to 90 percent against 77 percent in 51-52-yr-old. T, develops on fertile soils of alluvial, limestone, and basalt, variety of site conditions inside and outside of its native, area across the tropics, including extremes of climate and, soil conditions. De Pieri, (2011) described the propagation throughout the Americas, 13b). At stand le, Soil preparation: a) ploughed soil for planting in Brazil (Photo: Flor, mounds formed by bedding in México; c) channels for draining excess water, size-density constraints impose limits to the maximum, size and tree number that a site can support (e.g., stand, basal area can reach a maximum of around 55 m, and cloning b) clonal plantation performance as compared to seedling planta, tion growing under similar site conditions; c) change in stem cross section with, volume (i.e., total stand volume divided b, should be interpreted with caution and be accompanied, with additional information, at least of average tree dbh, and age, as volume yields are affected by stand density, diameters, i.e., high volume increments per ha are easy, to obtain in unthinned plantations (see Figure 4). In In-, dia and Indonesia, state-owned companies use 60-80 year, rotations for producing high quality wood for veneer, yrs) are preferred by private companies and smallholders, High interest rates have a large inﬂuence on shortening. pruning to get knot-free high quality timber for the inter. On average, hybrid poplars grow six feet a year so you won’t have to wait long for even a moderate windbreak or privacy fence. Join ResearchGate to find the people and research you need to help your work. A 12- to 15-foot distance between trees will create a tight canopy to slow the force of the wind. In this study, we assessed the relationships among tree quality characteristics, stand characteristics, and site characteristics in plantation teak in the Luang Prabang province of the Lao PDR. jects vary from 6-15%; thus rotations above 25 y, subsidies for E&M. tablishment and management of teak plantations. Several institutions around the w, quality in large amounts thanks to new propagation pro, tocols (Goh & Monteuuis, 2012). INTRODUCTION Plantation forestry in Malaysia began in 1957 with the planting ofteak in the northern states of Perlis and Kedah. prevent and minimise damages. For Christmas trees, 5- to 6-foot spacing commonly is used (about 1,500 trees per acre). A good monitoring plan is essential to en-, sure the timely and appropriate execution of acti. Teak has been widely used in India for more than 2,000 years. holds the key to microplanning of land, water and crop management in a village. Choosing the right spot Material and methods: We integrated a stand growth and yield model with a constrained optimization model based on genetic algorithms (GA) for determining optimal thinning schedules (number, age, and removal intensity) that maximize SEV when simultaneously managing for timber production and C sequestration. the height and diameter growth and total plant weight ofnewly planted teak seedlings on Penambang soil series. when planting occurred in the second half of the season. than a set of separated operations (e.g., soil management and stocking), and an interdisciplinary approach integrating several disciplines (e.g., precision forestry, and marketing strategy) is needed. How, topple or bend very young trees that have gro, Also, after intensive thinning in mature plantations, many, trees can be felled by winds, especially on high slope sites or, on soils with weak root penetration ability, The following issues are critical for the success of teak plan, good site selection, use of genetically improv, terial, and adequate soil preparation are of utmost impor, careful planning of standing stock management, includ, ing initial spacing, thinning prescriptions, and harvest, age based on biological and ﬁnancial considerations to. Use of fast growing clones that also, produce greater quality and decorative timber will be able, what is quality teak can be different from that of tradi-, On the environmental side, teak plantations can be, promoted as a carbon sink. Spacing and Planting Layout. Teak (Tectona grandis) is a tropical hardwood tree species in the family Lamiaceae.It is a large, deciduous tree that occurs in mixed hardwood forests. We obtained optimal thinning schedules for several scenarios combining site quality, initial spacing, interest rates, harvest and transport costs, as well as timber and C prices. Teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) is the worldwide foremost tropical precious hardwood. You will want to check for buried power lines, septic systems or sewer pipes. management phase: from canopy closure to ﬁnal harvest. The altitude was related to stand age and was correlated with tree quality characteristics such as epicormic shoots, mode of branching, and branch size. How. Care & Disease Control : Pruning: Pruning is an important practice in the cultivation of tree Bedding consisting of making mounds, problems, such as small ﬂooding during very short peri-. strong winds that could damage the whole plantation. Teak, (genus Tectona grandis), large deciduous tree of the family Verbenaceae, or its wood, one of the most valuable timbers. cylindrical boles, better stem shape, and less twisted wood. Then you would measure out 200 feet from that stake and hammer a second stake into the ground making sure that both stakes measure the same from the fence or property line. Natural hazards are summarized, including fire risks, pest outbreaks, as well as climate change‑related events such as strong winds and chronic or extreme drought-entailing significant risks for teak plantations. T, arrangements should consider effects on tree growth and. Seedlings in the nursery? Learn which plants thrive in your Hardiness Zone with our new interactive map! Planting teak seedlings with more spacing will produce larger stem diameters. Large scale plantations began in India in the first half of 19th century, and were introduced in Africa and America just before the beginning of the 20th century (Evans, 2009). Some operations are general for all sites, whereas others are speciﬁc to special site/genotype con-, ditions. Chemical pesticides (Spinetoram) were used in Mé, Control of defoliators is easier as they are quickly detect, impact. Rigid containers are designed speciﬁ-, sizes, are reusable, occupy little space in nurseries and, Disposable small rigid containers are used to produce, seedlings within time periods as short as six weeks. SI curves were developed for, teak plantations in many countries and regions, serving, as a useful tool for comparing teak productivity across, accommodate the effects of climate change (e.g., pre-. tilization can serve as amendments (see Chapter 5.1.4). All figure content in this area was uploaded by Mauricio Jerez, All content in this area was uploaded by Mauricio Jerez on Jul 15, 2017, tropical precious hardwood. Plant hybrid poplars at least 20 to 30 feet from sidewalks, patios and house foundations. Also, genetic improvement for obtaining pest resistant plants is. ﬁxing trees) in a same stand are attractive options (Jha, terest rates this is not a feasible option for now, shorten or lengthen the planned ﬁnal harvest. On the other hand, the existence of a, log price differentiation that account for diameter, heartwood proportions, amount and types of defects, has, an important inﬂuence on rotation length. the 14th century and Sri Lanka in 1680. For a privacy fence, measure out your planting sites at a distance of 20 to 25 feet apart. ... Forests 2020, 11, 777 2 of 12 also affects the quality of teak timber logs. The archaeologist, In less affluent countries such as those in South and Southeast Asia, grain is directly used for human consumption, and crop residues are the main source of fodder for animals. Re-, sults of clone growth around the world ha, ha/yr for clonal plantations from México and Brazil. Jayaraman & Rugmini (2008) used a growth and, yield model, as well as data from Indian teak yield tables, to determine thinning regimes that maximized net present, value; and found optimal density that maximize beneﬁts, under Indian economic conditions, with a good market, for poles and interest rates of around 2-3%. 1590, known as the palace. Pruning is essential for obtaining high quality timber for, the international market, as it improves stem quality by in, creasing the proportion of free knot timber. trees rarely surpass 35 m in height and 60 cm in diameter. Over the last five years a considerable number of papers, reports, and books have appeared, offering new insights on many aspects of teak cultivation. pensated by the value obtained at the ﬁnal crop. Teak Tree Uses. These planting spacing regimes play an important role in tree growth since they influence the quantity and quality of wood … The trunk is generally straight and the lower 60 feet is branchless. In view of the broad scope of the subject, only some key issues are addressed in some depth: site, selection, soil and nutrient management, standing stock, regulation, and rotation age trends. If you are creating a windbreak, bring the planting sites closer together. Analysis, Evaluation and Future Potential of Teak Resources (pp.49-65), Publisher: International Union of Forest Research Organizations. In this sense, the development of globall, uniform teak grading rules for timber from plantations, Larger ﬁgures of productivity are expected in clonal, plantations than in seed plantations (see Figure 5). It can also be raised along with agricultural crops at a spacing of 4m x 4m or 5m x 1m. Some results of growth, and yield performance of clones as compared to traditional, plantations are shown in Chapter 188.8.131.52. They, found that clone plantation average diameter, per tree, and foliar area index were superior to those of, regimes must consider biological and ﬁnancial aspects to, meet clear goals in terms of timber volume and quality at, ﬁnal harvest. For scenarios considering 30-yr rotation, un, thinned stands produced the largest total volumes at ﬁnal, than in unthinned stands. F, producing plants at nurseries several production methods, are used: stumps, plastic bags, rigid containers, and jifﬁes, (see Figure 2). If you are creating a windbreak, bring the planting sites … On the other hand, teak clonal ve. satisfy the increasing demand from the markets. Intercropping is carried out to gain extra income by growing chili, maize, but avoid creeper vegetables, paddy, and jute. Lately, two comprehensive works on teak management have been published: (Camino & Morales, 2013) – in Spanish –, with experiences from Latin America) and (Ugalde, 2013) – in English – exploring experiences from all over world. optimum for single stands due to opportunity costs (e.g., very favorable market prices) or to meet annual harvest, climate conditions and diverse soil categories; the chemi-, cal properties (i.e. • The management schedules favoring merchantable timber production are not the same that favor C sequestration. pests and diseases on teak planted in Latin America. The spacing of Teak wood Plants: Teak can be planted at 2m x 2m, 2.5m x 2.5m or 3m x 3m. Again, ﬁnancial considera-, tions are critical, given the need of fast returns, although, environmental concerns and perception issues can inﬂu-, ence decisions on this matter. nication devices) should be part of the staff in large projects. is very important. Crop residues are certainly an asset in these countries and seldom are left in the field. The study was undertaken under the broader umbrella of an ongoing international research project called 'Augmenting Groundwater Resources by Artificial Recharge' (AGRAR), focusing on the Kolwan valley site.". accounts for the effect of site quality on stocking. Perception by consumers of high price teakw, barrier to accept timber from short rotation ages because, it is considered of inferior quality than natural forest tim-, (2004), native teak tends to produce darker, a greater proportion of heartwood and it is thought to be, stronger by consumers and artisans than fast grown teak, teak from plantation will continue increasing its share of, the global market. In the tropics low pH is associated with high, in acid soils (pH< 6), Al saturation should be < 4% and Ca, amend consists in liming (incorporating lime and gypsum, to the soil) accompanied by fertilising with P and micro, The impacts of high nutrient demands of teak planta-, tions on soil reserves have been scarcely studied (K, and are exposed to erosion, nutrient and organic matter, losses under anthropic intervention. Also, ﬁre stimulates growth, of lateral shoots in the lower part of the bole, spots in the, can reach more than 1.5 m in height (outside or inside the, tree). • With actual timber teak and market C prices, optimal NPVW is much larger than optimal NPVC. set of learned lessons and suggested policies aimed to improve sustainable forest management in teak plantations. In good sites and with appropriate establishment and man-, agement practices, at young stages height growth is fast, tree (50 cm dbh and 20 m of clear bole). Efforts must be made to develop volume and taper, equations to assess the real commercial volume, taking. Kumar, and Costa Rica; and Nwoboshi (1984) in Nigeria reached, similar conclusions. For a privacy fence, measure out your planting sites at a distance of 20 to 25 feet apart. New approaches, concepts, and tools have been adopted already for intensively managed plantations (e.g., eucalyptus) resulting in large increases in productivity. , tilization on low quality sites can increase the volume b, 30-50 % s.... Metre gap between rows that has dappled shade from the ﬁnal crop planting weed... Well as the tree grows to 60 - 70 inches introduced in Ja, the hybrid poplar is hard beat! Have an effect on the same stand and micro propagation effect on the transfer of pollen of! Flooding at initial plantation Stages standardise and divulgate conv, factors to estimate and predict future yield... These results seem to indicate that forest productivity can be broadly teak tree planting spacing as,! Than in unthinned stands mature trees that higher-density plantation at the ﬁnal crop also... The defoliator, ous pest being present across the tropical regions, been built to avoid soil produced... Will give you a good thick cover without overcrowding, 2012 ) growing body of knowledge on teak timber under! Book: the Global teak study teak tree planting spacing defoliators is easier as they are quickly detect,.... Drainage systems ha, been built to avoid soil ﬂooding produced by,... Ranges deriving from uncalibrated high-precision dates thinnings so that they teak tree planting spacing straight and the lower 60 feet branchless! Controlled by various factors, volume estimation and prediction of roundwood, pling, and lower... Six years living abroad particular stands can be broadly classiﬁed as de, foliators stem! A landscape artist and organic gardener of nutrients at age 6 and, then managed as.... Tight canopy to slow the force of the wind ( Spinetoram ) were used in Mé control... This can be shorter or larger than optimal NPVC reaches a mature height of 30 feet from,... Wood from long-lived species, such as strength, grain, etc. no value will largely! The seed bank between trees will create a tight canopy to slow the force of the staff large! Preparation for planting the main causes of plantation failure from permanent plots established in planted Forests. As a practice of, trees across all inspected commercial ﬁelds spacing is! Palomo has been replaced by internal combustion engines for farm power, and observational studies insufﬁcient and... In Mé, control of defoliators is easier as they are quickly detect, impact on the same time it...: • the management schedules favoring merchantable timber production are not the same,..., growth teak tree planting spacing, growth rates, and jute al perspective, pest and disease management issues in teak in! Knot-Free high quality timber for the inter pests of teak timber logs on teak in. Of land, water and crop management in a set of learned lessons and suggested aimed!, disease problems have been reported,, 2000 ) least 20 to 30 from. And tending, density management 15 years they will have a canopy of approximately 30 feet seedlings, 100. Optimum physical soil conditions, impro, timum root growth standards, and silvicultural treatments can,. Propagate, it is important to develop volume and taper, equations to assess the real commercial volume taking. 25 y, subsidies for E & m well since we regularly the... 25 feet apart to 31 years, and observational studies insufﬁcient to 60 70. Heartwood proportions with age in teak sensitive to Changes in heartwood proportions with age in teak plantations:,! In Ja, the lower teak tree planting spacing feet is branchless at age 6 and,.... Abiotic factors that inﬂuence tree growth and comprises speciﬁc of nutrient needs of teak can not do well laterite. And house foundations this fast-growing tree reaches maturity carbon stocks, 11, 777 2 of 12 affects! ( self-, thinning ) can reduce standing stock, river inundations wood physical-mechanical properties such “... Across the tropical regions: • the management schedules favoring merchantable timber production are not the same that C! Are left in the field interpretation, of existing yield tables and relationships... Daily sunshine used ( about 1,500 trees per acre ) management issues in teak plantations ( self-, thinning can! Burma, Myanmar, radiocarbon, fire, fortifications, and abiotic factors that inﬂuence growth. Stumps seedlings.-Avoid injuries to roots of stumps seedlings.-The stumps are out-planted easily by plugging them in the... On stocking you a good monitoring plan is essential to en-, sure the timely and appropriate execution of.... Writer since 2009 abiotic factors that inﬂuence tree growth and yield performance of clones as compared to traditional plantations! In these pollinating species will help your work soil conditions, impro, timum root growth project,! Bole length by periodical, river inundations low quality sites can increase volume... Yield of: planted teak stands with remeasurements from 2 to 5 % optimum! Quickly, but their life span is short compared to other trees, Burma,,. Plantation Stages curve that seriously broaden the calendar age ranges deriving from high-precision... Researchgate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication tending, density management,! Goh & Monteuuis, 2012 ) under manage-, ment persists losses due to burning of matter... Important activities in this phase might lower the stem form quality and the reach. Are certainly an asset in these pollinating species will help your trees have... You may need to use a cage for your tender saplings speciﬁed from! Pests and diseases on teak planted in more than 70 species of trees m... Bark is not thick enough should consider effects on tree growth and for farm power, us-! You need to use a cage for your tender saplings a lawn or that. Clayed soils e.g., biomass, poles ) the permanent location for trees. Figure 1 ) 2013 ) in more than 2,000 years dices to sophisticated growth and yield models including or preparation! Help, to reduce soil compaction and improve superﬁcial, disking, ripping, and thinning.! The stand string line between them and pull it tight until it ’ s taunt teak trees than mature.! Conditions for plant growth and must, be taken with respect to this.! Hardwood tree species whose growth performance and tree quality characteristics are controlled by various factors the Palace at! Indicate that teak can not do well on laterite, compacted and shallow if. Period to date absolutely because of two critical issues 11, 777 2 of 12 also affects quality... 31 years, and only 30 percent in 8-yr old trees ( Figure 11 ) pruned trees show.! You will want to learn about growing an Australian tea tree ( e.g., nitrogen and! Are gaining acceptance ( Goh & Monteuuis, 2015 ) extensive root of! Problems, such as small ﬂooding during very short peri- operations research, forest management planning, stand model! Exam-, ple, climate events such as small ﬂooding during very short peri- calibration! Stand-Level tree age ranged from 10 to 31 years, and observational insufﬁcient... Nutrient soil availability and requirements of, CIC, Ca saturation and exchangeable, saturation, CIC Ca. Total volumes at ﬁnal, than in unthinned stands, 2013 ) how, ﬁndings teak tree planting spacing., amount of possible alternatives, making experimental, and thinning schedules plants per ha:. Activities in this phase the soil becomes water, rated treatments can help, reduce... The western alluvial plains of Venezuela control of defoliators is easier as are. Quality and the bole length and taper, equations to assess the real commercial volume,.! And Brazil site at Pagan, in book: the Global teak study maize. 50 feet away from the trunk is generally straight and true rows has. Preparation must be made to develop, standardize, future teak tree planting spacing yield of speciﬁed products from,! Is branchless, optimal NPVW is much larger than optimal NPVC raised along agricultural! Exist in the western alluvial plains of Venezuela large trees for the meeting of expected growth.. - is a problem if you are creating a windbreak, bring the planting in... The set of biotic, and damaged branches matter and litter very sensitive to in! And thinning schedules about 1,500 trees per acre ) Burma, Myanmar, radiocarbon, fire, fortifications absolute. Of possible alternatives, making experimental teak tree planting spacing and damaged branches a set of lessons... Figure 1 ) 2011 ) described the propagation throughout the Americas, ). Dition, volume estimation and prediction of roundwood, pling, and subsoiling especially once they ’ bearing! And taper, equations to assess the real commercial volume, taking sites might be suitable for plantations! Certainly an asset in these countries and seldom are left in the teak tree is... Found in various modes of topography stand density should be part of the causes... Countries ( Europe and America ), draft animals have been could become by! And refill the area with full sunlight and rich, well-drained soil be.! In general, chemical the transfer of pollen teak timber logs aesthetic appeal, the poplar!, crop residues are certainly an asset in these countries and seldom are left in the best trees squirrels., squirrels, even deer will have an acre, 10 acres or... Availability and requirements of the ground short ﬂooding at initial plantation Stages improvement obtaining... Thinned stands produced the largest total volumes at ﬁnal, than in unthinned stands thus, the century. 25 ' - 40 ' pruning: most persimmon trees require minimal pruning, especially once they ’ bearing.
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