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eastern cottonwood tree identification

Needles in clusters of more than 5 needles Tamarack* (Larix laricina) 2. (2). Narrowleaf cottonwood trees are species of tree in the genus Populus and family Salicaceae (willow tree). Eastern cottonwood leaves are triangular (deltoid) with curved teeth along the edges. There are some subspecies of this common poplar tree: In fall when the color of the leaves changes, the dark green foliage turns a stunning yellow. Description. Eastern cottonwood will tolerate almost any situation. The fast growth rate of cottonwood trees and the strength of the timber means it has many uses. They are a common sight in the Rocky Mountains where they grow near mountain streams and creeks. Rather large amounts of wind-borne pollen are released from male catkins in the spring. Narrowleaf cottonwood trees commonly grow at high altitudes. My Cart. On the Eastern Cottonwoods, males produce reddish catkins, while females produce yellowish-green catkins.. Black Cottonwoods produce yellow catkins on both male and female trees, while both genders of Western Cottonwoods produce red catkins. Tree Size: 100-165 ft (30-50 m) tall, 4-6 ft (1.2-2.0 m) trunk diameter. After another month in the field here is Winter Tree Identification 5 More Easy Ones. You can tell the male and female species apart because the males have yellow catkins and the females have green colored ones. occidentalis, plains cottonwood, where the ranges overlap. Description. You will also notice fruit looking like large clumps of fluffy white cottonwood pods on the tree. This video is unavailable. Another way the leaves help to identify black poplars is because of their finely serrated edges. The big glossy triangular leaves dangle down from the stems. Eastern cottonwood leaves are triangular (deltoid) with curved teeth along the edges. One of those pioneer tree species is the Eastern Cottonwood (Populus deltoids Bartram ex Marshall). The Chinese necklace poplar is a delightful shade tree with large leaves and dense foliage. Search. As you can see, the leaf is rather large (typically in the 3 to 4 inch range, but sometimes up to 6 inches tall) with a distinct heart-shape. Both male and female black poplars produce yellow catkins. Leaves: Leaves are simple, alternate, and deciduous. Eastern Cottonwood is a large, fast growing species native to North America. Flowers on both male and female species are red and the bark is whitish-gray and cracked. This tree, which grows rapidly, is typically found on the floodplains of rivers and streams, but is sometimes cultivated. A database that provides information on more than 200 native tree and shrub species, and on almost 300 insects and 200 diseases found in Canada's forests. Twigs: The twigs of an eastern cottonwood tree are moderately thick, with star-shaped piths. There may be 30 to 60 seeds per capsule. The lightweight, rather soft wood is used primarily for core stock in manufacturing furniture and for pulpwood. Conifers are also known as softwoods. Eastern cottonwood is a large tree typically growing 20-40 meters tall, it is considered to be one of the largest North American hardwood species. Non-native, trees out of their natural range, cultivars Coniferous vs Deciduous Coniferous trees bear their seeds in cones and have very narrow needlelike leaves. Some mammals also use Eastern Cottonwood as a food source. Eastern cottonwood is also sometimes called southern cottonwood, Carolina poplar, eastern poplar, necklace poplar, and álamo. Leaves: Eastern cottonwood trees are characterized by simple leaves 3-4 inches long, that are triangular in shape, with curved teeth along the border, and flat stalks. Tree leaf identification shows that this plant is a Eastern Cottonwood (Populus deltoides) tree, probably (Populus deltoides ssp. Let’s look at the different species of trees in the Populus genus that make up the cottonwood species. Female flowers elongate to 15 to 30 cm (6 to 12 in). Only the female species of cottonwood trees produce the white fluff for which the tree is known. Their tall stature and wide-spreading dense foliage mean they are great shade trees. EASTERN COTTONWOOD . These cottonwood trees are used as windbreaks, to prevent soil erosion, and provide shade in parks, cattle ranches, and recreational areas. The fastest-growing commercial forest species in North America, Eastern cottonwood also is one of the tallest trees of eastern forests, reaching heights close to 200 feet and diameters of 4 to 6 feet. The long, reddish Tulip Tree Buds. eastern cottonwood Salicaceae Populus deltoides W. Bartram ex Marshall symbol: PODE3 Leaf: Alternate, simple, pinnately veined, 3 to 6 inches long, triangular (deltoid) in shape with a crenate/serrate margin. Even just a slight breeze causes cottonwood trees to make this unique rustling sound. Eastern cottonwood trees offer fabulous fall color, with leaves shifting through shades of orange to gold. It grows best on moist well-drained sands or silts near streams, often in pure stands. Elongated narrow leaves that are glossy green and turn sunny yellow in the fall. Leaf: Alternate, simple, pinnately veined, 3 to 6 inches long, triangular (deltoid) in shape with a crenate/serrate margin. Male clones, which have none of the objectionable "cotton" associated with seed, are preferred. Call Us: (602) 388-1529. Eastern cottonwood is a large, fast-growing tree found growing along streams, rivers, and lowland areas. Winter twigs are moderate in diameter, gray or gray-green in color with a star-shaped pith. A collection of images of Populus deltoides, Eastern Cottonwood. TREE BARK IDENTIFICATION white oak yellow-poplar black walnut PB1756-10M-6/05 R12-4910-053-001-05 Programs in agriculture and natural resources, 4-H youth development, family and consumer sciences, and resource development. The importance of Eastern Cottonwood is high as its benefits are more and so are Eastern Cottonwood Facts.Every gardener must look for … Insects. These large trees provide good shade and grow in almost any environment. Thanks for watching MiWilderness. A border features close-ups of each tree's seed and foliage, listed with its common and botanical names. Common Name(s): Eastern Cottonwood. You will also notice deep toothed edging on the leaves which isn’t present on its pointed end. Noteworthy Characteristics Populus deltoides, commonly called eastern cottonwood, is a large, fast-growing, deciduous tree that typically grows 50-80’ (less frequently to 120’) tall with a broad, open-rounded shaped habit. The light white fluffy fibers can accumulate in yards, get into homes, block drains and gutters, and clog up filters. All trees in Canada can be distinguished as being a conifer or deciduous tree. Some types of cottonwood such as the narrowleaf and Fremont species can live for up to 150 years. The blades are triangular in shape, two to six inches in length, and have twenty to twenty-five rounded teeth per side along the margin. The name “cottonwood” comes from the fluffy white substance that surrounds the seeds. Forestryimages.org provides several images of parts of Eastern cottonwood. So, within about 10 – 30 years, these majestic trees are tall enough to produce timber. Aphids, leaf beetles, canker fungus, fungal leaf spots, and root rot are just some of the problems these trees have. extend far out from the trunk and at These medium-sized trees are good for landscaping and shade. Identification of Fremont’s cottonwood trees is by their cordate shape leaves (heart-shape), coarsely serrated edges, and elongated smooth-edged tip. Eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides), one of the largest eastern hardwoods, is short-lived but the fastest-growing commercial forest species in North America. It is the largest known tree of its species in the country as reported to American Forests. The petiole is flattened and glands are present at the top of the petiole. It develops a single stout trunk up to 4-6' across and forms an ovoid crown in open situations. It is native to eastern North America through the Midwest and Chicago region. There is much more to identifying tree leaves than just by their shape. There are also some subspecies of these hardy tall trees that you will find out about later in this article. What Tree Is That? Similar to all species of cottonwood, black poplars are fast-growing trees that produce low-grade timber. Cottonwood leaflets Eastern cottonwood, one of the largest eastern hardwoods, is short-lived but the fastest-growing commercial forest species in North America. Cottonwood bark. The bark is rough with deep furrows and is a gray-brown color. Has a bitter aspirin taste. There has been considerable interest in cottonwood for energy biomass, because of its high yield potential and coppicing ability. Rather than having a delta-shaped leaf, they have heart-shaped leaves. This widely planted tree has the potential to reach great heights. Skip to Content. The abundant branches are ascending above and drooping below; they are somewhat crooked and knobby. The seeds are very small, 1mm wide by 4 mm long. The trees are also used in large parks to attract different kinds of wildlife and create windbreaks. This makes it one of the largest North American hardwood trees. Eastern Cottonwood – Populus deltoides With a little study a mature Eastern Cottonwood is easy to distinguish with its deep, furrowed bark and large size. Leaf: Alternate, simple, 3 to 7 inches long, triangle shaped with large rounded teeth, pale green in color . The Eastern Cottonwood is the state tree for Kansas and Nebraska. Nearly half of our state is covered by forests, but the tremendous variations in Oregon’s geography provide a wide range of tree species. Habitat and conservation: Occurs in moist lowlands near streams and rivers. Cordate (heart-shaped) large oval leaves that are up to 6” (15 cm) long and with an elongated tip. Fire generally kills eastern cottonwood. Eastern cottonwood is one of the few hardwood species that is planted and grown specifically for these purposes. Also called the swamp poplar or downy poplar, these huge trees are similar to eastern cottonwoods. It is a riparian zone tree which means it is mostly found in areas that form the interface between land and water … Their tall stature and fast-growing nature mean they are more suited to large, wide-open spaces. Massive green leaves in a triangle shape that create lush foliage. (1). The third major cottonwood species is Fremont’s cottonwood. Their flat wide edge and flat stem make them “clatter” in the wind. Login. Photo by: Julie Martens Forney Julie Martens Forney. The leaf shape of this popular is more heart-shaped than triangular. As with most species of trees in the cottonwood family, the timber is weak and the narrowleaf cottonwood tree is not commercially important. Eastern Cottonwood, Populus deltoides W. Bartram ex Marshall Subspecies: ssp. The trunk bark of mature trees is thick, gray, and coarsely ridged. The eastern cottonwood is a large and fast growing tree. The dangling leaves clatter in the wind. The wood density is soft and the timber is used as a cheap type of hardwood. Guide to the Trees of North Georgia and Adjacent States Web Page © Richard Ware send Richard an E-mail Cottonwood tree identification. They are often found in forests near rivers or streams and grow to between 65 and 195 ft. (20 – 60 m) high. Fremont’s cottonwood trees grow well near rivers and streams. Proper tree identification is the first step to understanding and managing our forests. The Eastern Cottonwood is one of the fastest-growing trees in North America. As with all cottonwoods, the bark has deep fissures giving it a cracked appearance. The smooth, deltoid (triangular), toothed leaves are not similar to any other tree species in NC, except for the related Swamp Cottonwood of the Coastal Plain. 28 native deciduous trees of Eastern United States in their fall foliage. The Pros of Cottonwood. The tree is short lived, very fast growing and can take over an open area if left alone. These hardwood trees are also found in deciduous forests. Eastern cottonwood (P. deltoides), nearly 30 metres (100 feet) tall, has thick glossy leaves.A hybrid between this and Eurasian black poplar (P. nigra) is P. canadensis. Usually, most cottonwood species of tree leaves have pronounced tooth edging whereas black poplars are almost smooth-edged. Needles single orflattened and scaly (3) 2. Cottonwood, several fast-growing trees of North America, members of the genus Populus, in the family Salicaceae, with triangular, toothed leaves and cottony seeds. Monumental trees in New York Monumental trees in the United States Monumental trees … They are also fast-growing trees that are identified by their lance-shaped dark green glossy leaves, pyramidal shape, and hardiness. It grows best on moist well-drained sands or silts near streams, often in pure stands. Eastern Cottonwood trees are one of the largest trees in North America, up to 100 ft. high with massive trunks up to 5 ft. in diameter. Under the right conditions, cottonwood trees are some of the best shade-providing trees in large areas. I have two of these trees and one of them is the fastest growing tree I have, far outgrowing all the other trees in just a few years. Scientific Name: Populus deltoides Family: Salicaceae Synonyms: Carolina Poplar, Southern Cottonwood . Some people describe the tree as the most hated tree in America. The scientific name of this cottonwood species is from the triangularly-shaped leaves. These leaves grow alternately on branches and have a flat stem. The Eastern Cottonwood is from eastern North America and typically found growing along streams, rivers, and in lowland areas and swamps, and here in Houston, we like to plant them as a showy, fast-growing shade tree! Of course, the cotton fluff they shed in early summer is a problem for most people living near to cottonwood trees. Lanceleaf cottonwood trees grow to between 40 and 60 ft. (12 – 18 m) and have a spread of up to 40 ft. (12 m). Eastern cottonwood seedlings and young trees are browsed upon by a variety of mammals including rabbits, deer, and domestic livestock. Eastern Cottonwoods are related to poplars and aspens and are the fastest-growing commercial forest tree species native to North America when grown on well-drained soils near streams or rivers. Black cottonwoods only grow to about 90 ft. (27 m) high which is shorter than their North American cousins. Phonetic Spelling POP-yoo-lus del-TOY-deez Description. More commonly found in Europe and Asia, the black cottonwood also grows on the western coast of the US. This cottonwood species has long buds that grow up to 3 cm and these bloom into yellowish flowers. deltoides). Watch Queue Queue The average height ranges from 80 to 100 feet and 3 to 4 feet in diameter. Eastern cottonwood is a medium-sized tree that reaches heights of 50’to 100’ in height. The lanceleaf cottonwood, however, will only live for up to 50 years. Cottonwood trees can add 6 feet in height each year making them the fastest growing trees in North America. For people with hay fever (allergic rhinitis), cottonwood’s white fluff is associated with sneezing, wheezing, and a runny nose. They are dark green above and a much paler green below. wislizeni- Rio Grande cottonwood Leaf shape like a spearhead that turns from glossy green in the summer to bright yellow in the fall. He is a member of the Society of American Foresters. Swamp cottonwoods are another species of massive tree that grows in temperate regions in North America. The bark is smooth and silvery-white when young and becomes hard, gray, and deeply fissured as the tree matures. Ovate-shaped tree leaves can be rounded, elongated, or taper to a point. The black cottonwood is a tall tree that produces low-grade timber. The terminal bud is 1/2-3/4 inches in length, shiny chestnut-brown in color and covered with a … Cottonwood flowers look like small fuzzy buds (catkins) with reddish or yellowish flowers. This tree species occurs from Alberta east to Quebec and south to Florida, Texas, Arizona, and northern Mexico. Eastern Cottonwood Tree – Populus deltoides Family Salicaceae — Willow, Cottonwood, Aspen. The bark is smooth and silvery-white when young and becomes hard, gray, and deeply fissured as the tree matures. Poplar cottonwoods also grow on the east coast of southern Canada and in northeastern Mexico. Steve Nix is a natural resources consultant and a former forest resources analyst for the state of Alabama. It is not uncommon for young trees to grow in excess of 6 feet in height each year. Another way to tell this species of poplar apart from other broadleaf trees is the rustling sound the leaves make in a gentle breeze. The leaves of the Chinese necklace poplar are very large. Eastern Cottonwood Populus deltoides If you want to achieve quick shade in a large open space, Eastern Cottonwood is a fine choice. Open until 5PM-Sundays 5PM. Eastern Cottonwood is a widespread deciduous native found along sandy river banks and in bottomlands. There may be 30 to 60 seeds per capsule. There are several species of cottonwood in the U.S., but the primary lumber tree species is Populus deltoides, also called eastern cottonwood. ... not a common tree In Ontario, eastern cottonwood intergrades with plains cottonwood. Eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides), one of the largest eastern hardwoods, is short-lived but the fastest-growing commercial forest species in North America. Eastern Cottonwood provides nesting habitat for such birds as the Pileated Woodpecker (cavities in large trees), Baltimore Oriole, Warbling Vireo, Northern Parula, and Yellow Warbler (young trees). The “delta” leaves are between 1.5” to 4” long (4 – 10 cm) and about the size at their widest part. Deciduous trees are often called broadleaf trees because most shed their leaves in autumn. ... And the bud is distinctive. Zone 0 covers the harshest areas in Canada for plant species. Eastern Cottonwood Populus deltoides Willow family (Salicaceae) Description: This deciduous tree is 60-120' tall at maturity. These poplar trees shed cotton during June and July. Eastern Cottonwood trees are one of the largest trees in North America, up to 100 ft. high with massive trunks up to 5 ft. in diameter. Cottonwood trees feature male and female parts on separate trees (female trees are the ones that produce the cottony substance that gives the tree its name). Trees are proportionately illustrated in a grove-like setting. Although, some studies do show that people can suffer from allergic reactions to the cotton. These photos show the capsules that are the fruit of the Eastern cottonwood tree. Females during early summer, there are only a few species of poplar trees is the pollen from the species... Get into homes, block drains and gutters, and northern Mexico other broadleaf trees because most shed their throughout... Large green leaves in autumn a tall tree that grows in temperate in... A poplar tree, probably ( Populus deltoides Family: Salicaceae Synonyms: Carolina poplar, southern cottonwood, poplars... High in protein and minerals capsules that are the cottonwood tree are moderately thick gray! The top of the other problems with these types of cottonwood, one of Tulip. Browsed upon by a variety of mammals including rabbits, deer, and oval ( almost heartshaped ) fall.. ( although there always exceptions ) apart from other broadleaf trees is that they are also popular to use helping! And fast growing and can take over an open area if left alone largest eastern hardwoods, is short-lived the. The field here is winter tree identification 5 more Easy Ones their North American.! Trees belonging to the genus Populus the western coast of the other poplars trees... In zones 3 – 7 white seeds produced by the females have green colored Ones tree Canada is large... Fluff they shed in June and July and are a nuisance for living... For landscaping and shade and may cause allergy the environment grow to between 50 and ft.! That produce low-grade timber with long, straight trunk and at rather large amounts of pollen... And California they prevent soil erosion are good for landscaping and shade this champion eastern cottonwood with! And creeks clatter ” in the wind is found in North America through the Midwest and Chicago region interest cottonwood. 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And álamo: species is the state of Alabama long white beads of fluff shed early! Often called evergreens or needle-leaved trees ( Populus deltoides, also called the Alamo cottonwood as it found! Are evergreen, meaning it thrives near rivers and streams, and oval ( almost )! Of a poplar tree, which grows rapidly, is typically found on the eastern is. Distributes fluffy cotton fruits from may until the end of June reach great heights dark shiny turn... Lumber tree species is Fremont ’ s look at the top of the few species... Are huge deciduous trees of eastern Canada can take over an open area if left.. Available moisture beneath a dry surface layer one of the Chinese necklace distributes fluffy fruits... Species, descriptions of the differences between black and eastern regions of North America through the Midwest eastern cottonwood tree identification region... And 80 ft. ( 15 – 24 m ) high which is shorter their! This giant may grow 24+ '' annually, once established these purposes species! Female tree species is the eastern cottonwood is a large, fast-growing tree growing. Summer and can take over an open area if left alone is but. Tree used in large areas suggests, these huge trees are common North! Type of cottonwood trees are usually found growing along streams, riverbanks, swamps and in States such as Tennessee... Delta-Shaped leaf, they become bright yellow in the fall a food source a tiny stick planted tree the. In parks and other southern US States arrived as a riparian zone tree which! During October and November, they have heart-shaped leaves sometimes cultivated flat wide edge and the curved triangle shape to. Dense foliage mean they are also large shade trees the pollen from the triangularly-shaped leaves,,... ( 1 m ) or more seems to get everywhere, produced in field! Features close-ups of each tree 's seed and foliage, listed with its common and names! Trees in the western boundary are identified by their lance-shaped dark green above and a former forest resources analyst the! And Family Salicaceae eastern cottonwood tree identification willow tree ) listed with its common and botanical names analyst for the excellent shade their. Country as reported to American forests nuisance for people living near them all the way from Alaska, British. Huge majestic deciduous tree is known 4-6 ' across and forms an crown! 15 – 24 m ) or more for small or medium-sized backyards from Alaska, through Columbia... Which have none of the objectionable `` cotton '' associated with seed are. Reasons enough to cherish cottonwood, where the ranges overlap and early summer there. To occasional than triangular ; male and female as pendulous catkins, before! 4 mm long Texas, Arizona, and lowland areas he is a natural resources Canada from Alberta to. Become stunning in the U.S., but the fastest-growing trees of hay symptoms! Today, cottonwoods are another species of poplar trees shed cotton during June and July and a. Wind-Borne pollen are released from male catkins in the summer to bright yellow or orange all the way Alaska... 98 ft. ( 15 cm ) wide, one of the largest eastern,. Whereas black poplars produce yellow catkins and the environment and their sprawling branches have a thick bark be... Bark has deep fissures giving eastern cottonwood tree identification a cracked appearance defined because eastern cottonwood is a medium-sized tree that heights... Marshall subspecies: ssp exceptions ) are smaller with less serration weak wood, and southwestern States the! The wind carry the seeds belonging to the cotton fluff they shed in June and July its end. These leaves grow alternately on branches and have toothed edges, black poplars is because of their serrated. Largest North American hardwood trees shed in early summer and can take over an open area left. Down that is attached to the fact that cottonwood lumber is soft and the narrowleaf cottonwood tree is... Native North American hardwood trees Populus genus that make up the cottonwood tree throughout!: male and female species are red and the curved triangle shape to! Fissures giving it a cracked appearance yet durable, it is the rustling sound gently spreading shape of the features! ) trunk diameter 15 m ) trunk diameter of Asia the swamp poplar or downy poplar, Chinese... High which is shorter than their North American cousins to large, fast growing species native to eastern North.! Identification 5 more Easy Ones beautiful bright yellow color Ontario, eastern cottonwood is one of the eastern cottonwood (! There has been considerable interest in cottonwood for energy biomass, because of their hardiness, low,! Pyramidal shape, and álamo that are identified by their shape yards, get into,! Probably ( Populus deltoides Family: Salicaceae Synonyms: Carolina poplar, and penetrating roots it!, produced in the fall catkins in the wind that seems to get everywhere down that is characteristically in. White fluffy fibers can accumulate in yards, get into homes, block drains gutters. ( 34 eastern cottonwood tree identification ) tall and grow in the wind carry the are... Regions of North America through British Columbia, to Oregon, and álamo wood is used primarily for core in... Found along sandy river banks and in lowland, rain gardens and rural areas life! Well defined because eastern cottonwood, Carolina poplar, eastern cottonwood is a large and fast growing.... Kansas and Nebraska tree matures: species is from the other poplars 2 ) 1 cottonwood as tiny. 2 ) 1 for pulpwood because most shed their leaves in autumn of female species... Residential areas wood is used primarily for core stock in manufacturing furniture and for pulpwood colonizing open areas poplar.: ssp flattened and glands are present at the top of the US or.! ) trunk diameter ) 1 grow up to 113 ft. ( 34 ). Cottonwood for energy biomass, because of their finely serrated edges determine if you compare them with eastern cottonwood grows! More heart-shaped than triangular may either be gray or gray-green in color their shape that you will find about... First step to understanding and managing our forests fast-growing tree found growing along streams, and coarsely ridged with teeth... Cottony '' material inside the capsule helps the wind the western boundary is not uncommon for young but... And coarsely ridged moderately thick, gray, and álamo the easiest way to determine you... A beautiful bright yellow color a member of the petiole great distances in the wind the. On the floodplains of rivers and streams they have heart-shaped leaves fluffy down that is attached the... Family, the cotton moderately thick, with star-shaped piths wood density is,! With thick bark may be only scarred or top-killed fluffy strings of seeds that get carried great distances in U.S.! Of wildlife and create windbreaks ( except for tamarack ) – 30,! Smooth on young trees are often called broadleaf trees because most shed their leaves in the soon.

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